Structuring written work. Grammar, spelling and vocabulary
Some assignments have a standard format, such as for instance lab reports or case studies, and these will normally be explained in your course materials. For other assignments, you will have to show up with your personal structure.
Your structure might be guided by:
- the assignment question. As an example, it may list topics or use wording such as ‘compare and contrast’.
- the niche matter itself, which could suggest a structure according to chronology, process or location, for example
- your interpretation regarding the subject material. For instance, problem/solution, argument/counter-argument or sub-topics so as of importance
- the structure of other texts you’ve read in your discipline. Have a look at the way the information is organised and sequenced. Ensure you modify the structure to match your purpose to prevent plagiarism.
Essays are an extremely common as a type of academic writing. All essays have the same basic three-part structure: introduction, main body and conclusion like most of the texts you write at university. However, the body that is main be structured in a variety of ways.
To write a good essay:
Reports generally have a similar basic structure as essays, with an introduction, body and conclusion. However, the main body structure can differ widely, once the term ‘report’ is used for most forms of texts and purposes in different disciplines.
Find out whenever possible as to what kind of report is expected.
Just how to plan your structure
There are many how to show up with a structure for your work. If you’re not sure how to approach it, try a few of the strategies below.
During and after reading your sources, take notes and commence resume help thinking about approaches to structure the ideas and facts into groups. For example:
- seek out similarities, differences, patterns, themes or any other methods for grouping and dividing the ideas under headings, such as for instance advantages, disadvantages, causes, effects, problems, solutions or types of theory
- use coloured highlighters or symbols to tag themes or types of information in your readings or notes
- Paste and cut notes in a document
- physically group your readings or notes into piles.
It’s a good idea to brainstorm a couple of other ways of structuring your assignment once you’ve a rough concept of the main issues. Do this in outline form before you start writing – it is much easier to re-structure a plan than a half-finished essay. For instance:
- draw some tree diagrams, mind-maps or flowcharts showing which ideas, facts and references could be included under each heading
- discard ideas that do not fit into your overall purpose, and facts or references that aren’t ideal for what you want to talk about
- when you have plenty of information, such as for a thesis or dissertation, create some tables to exhibit how each theory or reading relates to each heading (this could be called a ‘synthesis grid’)
- plan the wide range of paragraphs you will need, the subject heading for each one of these, and dot points for each piece of information and reference needed
- try a few different possible structures until you will find one that is most effective.
Eventually, you’ll have a strategy that is detailed enough so that you could start writing. You’ll know which ideas go into each section and, ideally, each paragraph. You will also know how to locate evidence for anyone basic ideas in your notes and also the sources of that evidence.
If you’re having problems with the entire process of planning the structure of the assignment, consider trying a different technique for grouping and organising your information.
Making the structure clear
Your writing are going to be clear and logical to see it fits together if it’s easy to see the structure and how. You are able to accomplish that in lot of ways.
- Use the end of this introduction to demonstrate your reader what structure to anticipate.
- Use headings and sub-headings to mark the sections clearly (if these are acceptable for your discipline and assignment type).
- Use topic sentences at the start of each paragraph, to show the reader what the main idea is, also to link back again to the introduction and/or headings and sub-headings.
- Show the connections between sentences. The beginning of each sentence should link back once again to the primary idea of the paragraph or a previous sentence.
- Use conjunctions and linking words to show the structure of relationships between ideas. Types of conjunctions include: however, similarly, on the other hand, for this reason, because of this and moreover.
Almost all of the forms of texts you write for university need to have an introduction. Its purpose will be clearly tell the reader the topic, purpose and structure regarding the paper.
An introduction might be between 10 and 20 percent of the length of the whole paper and has three main parts as a rough guide.
- It begins with the most information that is general such as for instance background and/or definitions.
- The middle may be the core of this introduction, in which you show the overall topic, purpose, your point of view, hypotheses and/or research questions (depending on what kind of paper it is).
- It ends with the most information that is specific describing the scope and structure of your paper.
If the main body of one’s paper follows a template that is predictable like the method, results and discussion stages of a written report into the sciences, you generally don’t need certainly to include helpful tips into the structure in your introduction.
You ought to write your introduction once you know both your general point of view (if it’s a persuasive paper) therefore the whole structure of the paper. Alternatively, you should revise the introduction when you yourself have completed the body that is main.
Most writing that is academic structured into paragraphs. It really is beneficial to think about each paragraph as a mini essay with a structure that is three-part
- topic sentence (also called introductory sentence)
- body associated with the paragraph
- concluding sentence.
The sentence that is topic a general summary of this issue additionally the purpose of the paragraph. With respect to the amount of the paragraph, this might be one or more sentence. The topic sentence answers the question ‘What’s the paragraph about?’.
The body regarding the paragraph elaborates entirely on the topic sentence by providing definitions, classifications, explanations, contrasts, examples and evidence, as an example.
The final sentence in several, although not all, paragraphs could be the sentence that is concluding. It will not present information that is new but often either summarises or comments regarding the paragraph content. It may also provide a web link, by showing the way the paragraph links to your topic sentence of the next paragraph. The concluding sentence often answers the question ‘So what?’, by explaining how this paragraph relates back once again to the topic that is main.
You don’t have to create all of your paragraphs by using this structure. For instance, you can find paragraphs with no topic sentence, or the topic is mentioned nearby the end of this paragraph. However, this is certainly an obvious and common structure that allows you for your reader to check out.
In conclusion is closely linked to the introduction and is often referred to as its ‘mirror image’. Which means in the event that introduction begins with general information and ends with specific information, the conclusion moves into the direction that is opposite.
The final outcome usually:
- begins by briefly summarising the main scope or structure associated with the paper
- confirms the topic that has been given into the introduction. This could use the type of the aims of this paper, a thesis statement (point of view) or a research question/hypothesis as well as its answer/outcome.
- ends with a far more statement that is general how this topic relates to its context. This might use the kind of an evaluation for the significance of the topic, implications for future research or a recommendation about theory or practice.